Medical Guidance/Professor Wen Jiying, Director and Chief Physician of the Guangdong Maternal and Child Health Hospital
How to eat after pregnancy can be said to be a topic that every pregnant mother is very concerned, and it is also one of the homework that pregnant mothers must do.If you eat too much, you are afraid of fat, and you are afraid of malnutrition of your baby.The various nutrients also made many expectant mothers look at it.
On the afternoon of February 25, the Guangzhou Daily Healthy Lecture Class of the "Famous Medical University Lecture Hall" specially invited Professor Wen Jiying, director of obstetrics and chief physicians of the Guangdong Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangdong Province to reveal the secrets of the nutrition during pregnancy.
Wen Jiying pointed out that too much or too little weight during pregnancy is not good, and reasonable nutrition and weight gain can help give birth to a healthy baby.She emphasized that the pregnant mothers must first have a reasonable diet, and on this basis, they have targeted supplementing the required nutrients.She also shared the dietary focus of different stages of pregnancy, and sent everyone to "eat and drink guidelines" during pregnancy.
How much weight gain during pregnancy varies from person to person
Speaking of weight management during pregnancy, the first reaction of some pregnant mothers is "controlling weight".In this regard, Wen Jiying said that "management" is not equal to "control". The weight during pregnancy is a intuitive reference for reflecting nutrition during pregnancy. It is not good to gain too much or too little weight."Reasonable nutrition and weight gain during pregnancy, the ultimate purpose is to provide the baby’s reasonable nutrition, so as to give birth to a healthy baby."
If you grow too much, you can cause problems such as huge children, increased hypertension during pregnancy, and increased cesarean section. Newborn may also have corresponding complications, and it will even affect the health of the newborn baby after adulthood.If you increase too little, it may cause a lack of various nutrients and low weight.
According to Wen Jiying, in general, pregnant women will increase by about 12.5 kg during pregnancy.But how to increase and increase less, it is also particular.Normal pregnant women generally increase their weight by 1 to 2 kg during pregnancy, and increase by about 400 grams per week in the middle and late stages.Different BMI indexes (body mass indexes, which are deepened by the weight of the body in the body) of different BMI indexes before pregnancy are also different from the growth of weight growth during pregnancy.
Specifically, the pre -pregnancy low -weight pregnant woman (BMI is less than 18.5), the total weight gain range is 12.5 ~ 18 kg; the normal weight pregnant woman (BMI is 18.5 ~ 24.9) before pregnancy, the total weight gain is 11.5 ~ 16 kg;The BMI is 25 ~ 29.9), and the total weight gain range is 7 ~ 11.5 kg; Pregnant pregnant women (BMI are greater than equal to 30) before pregnancy, and the total weight gain range must be controlled at 5-9 kg.
"I didn’t gain much weight after pregnancy. Will children not be nutritious enough?" In response to the questions of fans, Wen Jiying calculated a "account" for expectant mothers: about 3,000 grams of fetal fetuses, placenta 500 ~ 500 ~650 grams, about 800 grams of amniotic fluid, and the amount of blood volume increased by about 1 ~ 1.5 kg.These are the weight that must be increased, adding up to seven or eight kilograms.The remaining weight increase comes from the increase in tissue gap fluid after fat reserves and edema.
Wen Jiying pointed out that if the weight of the early pregnancy does not increase too much, the pregnant mother does not have to be too anxious. If the weight gain in the later period is still not obvious, it is recommended to record your own diet and go to the hospital for professional nutritional consultation to see if there is a problem of insufficient nutritional intake.EssenceIn addition, the maternity examination is needed to eliminate the possibility of the disease.
How to make up for the various nutrients?
Wen Jiying emphasized that pregnant mothers must first have a reasonable diet, and on this basis, targeted supplements need nutrients.
Folic acid is good for children’s nervous system development, and it is also good for the metabolism of blood cells in pregnant mothers.From the beginning of pregnancy, to the first three months of pregnancy, she should have been eaten folic acid, and it is recommended to continue to supplement after three months of pregnancy.
There are folic acid in dark vegetables and seafood, but it is not easy to absorb. Therefore, it is recommended to add additional folic acid to eat folic acid tablets. After three months, you can also choose composite vitamins.
Iron is good for the production of blood cells and fetal development.It is recommended to eat iron -rich foods such as fish and poultry.In the middle and late pregnancy, the red meat of 25 to 50g is increased every day, and animal blood or liver are eaten 1-2 times a week. Generally, you can get iron intake required for pregnancy.
Iodine is important for metabolism and thyroxine synthesis.It is recommended to eat iodized salt, eat seafood 1 or 2 times a week, kelp and seaweed are good choices.
In addition, the content of calcium in traditional Chinese diet is generally not enough. Pay attention to calcium supplements in the middle and late pregnancy.It is recommended to drink 300 ml (about a bottle of about a bottle) of the early pregnancy, and add another bottle in the middle and late stages.For pregnant mothers who do not like to drink milk and do not like milk products, you can start eating calcium tablets from 14 to 16 weeks of pregnancy.
In addition, do other other other such as DHA and vitamin D need additional supplements?
Wen Jiying said that pregnant mothers in need can go to the hospital for nutritional consultation with targeted supplements. Some mothers do not lack but also want to add, and there is no disadvantage, not too nervous.
Two "Kans" on Qiaomai Nutrition Road
Pregnant mothers want their nutrition during pregnancy to give birth to healthy babies.However, there are still some "riders" tortured during pregnancy. Pregnancy and constipation during pregnancy and pregnancy are two commonly existed.
Wen Jiying introduced that due to the rise in hormones after pregnancy and the impact of uterine enlargement on the digestive system, pregnancy is a natural physiological phenomenon during pregnancy. Generally, it will slowly alleviate after three months of pregnancy.
Pregnant mothers who are pregnant are worried that they will affect the baby’s nutritional absorption."Don’t be too nervous." Wen Jiying reminded that mental factors are also an influential factor in pregnancy.Generally, the fetal needs for various nutrients in the first three months of pregnancy are not very large, but it is also necessary to ensure that it can consume about 130g of carbohydrates every day.
Wen Jiying’s tricks, eating some food made by ginger, and smelling lemons can help relieve nausea and pregnancy; you can eat something in the morning and then brush your belly and then brush your teeth; you can also eat some sour plums according to your own taste.Liangguo and so on.If you get to vomit, you must go to the hospital for medical treatment in time, and there may be disturbances of hydrolysis.
Constipation is also a common problem for pregnant women.First of all, pregnant mothers should pay attention to identifying "authenticity" constipation.The number of stools after pregnancy is reduced, and it is normal to reach three times or three times a week.
Pregnant mothers who are troubled by constipation may try to eat more high -fiber food, drink plenty of water, and exercise as much as possible.If it is not improved, it is recommended to go to the hospital for help, and you can relieve symptoms with some safe drugs.
How to eat and collect this "eating and drinking guide" during pregnancy
How to eat during pregnancy is a topic that almost every expectant mother is very concerned about, and even many pregnant mothers "dare not eat, and then dare not touch."Wen Jiying said that for Western medicine, there are not many dietary taboos during pregnancy, but it is not recommended that pregnant mothers eat foods that are prone to bacteria, such as ham sausage, lunch meat and other processed foods, raw seafood, soft ice cream, etc.It is recommended that pregnant mothers eat more fresh and healthy foods, eat less high sugar, high oil, and high -salt food.
Speaking of dietary diet, Wen Jiying pointed out that first of all, we should understand how pregnant women should eat:
1. Diverse food, mainly grain
The daily diet should include food potato, vegetables and fruits, livestock poultry fish, eggs, milk, soy nuts and other foods. On average, more than 12 kinds of foods are intake per day, and more than 25 kinds of weekly.
Take 250 ~ 400g of grain foods every day, including 50 ~ 150g of whole grains and miscellaneous beans, and 50 ~ 100g of potato.
2. Balanced food, healthy weight
Adhere to daily physical activities, exercise at least 5 days a week, and accumulate 150 minutes. Exercise is best to take at least 6000 steps a day.
3. Eat more vegetables and fruits, milk, soybeans
There are vegetables in the meal, ensuring that 300 ~ 500g of vegetables are intake daily, and dark vegetables should be half.
Eat fruits every day to ensure that you consume 200 ~ 350g of fresh fruit every day. It should be noted that fruit juice cannot replace fresh fruit.
Eating a variety of dairy products is equivalent to 300g of liquid milk per day.
Eat soy products frequently and eat nuts in moderation.
4. Eat fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat
Eat 280 ~ 525g of fish per week, 280 ~ 525g of livestock and poultry meat, 280 ~ 350g eggs, with an average daily intake of 120 ~ 200g.
5. Less salt and less oil, smoke control and quit drinking
Adults do not exceed 6g of salt per day, cook 25 ~ 30g of oil per day, and not exceed 50g of sugar per day. It is best to control below 25g.
"The diet after pregnancy is just an appropriate increase or decrease on the basis of daily balance." Wen Jiying suggested that the pregnant mother can do the following–
1. Three kinds of nutrients must keep up
It is necessary to ensure sufficient intake of three nutrients: folic acid, iron, and iodine.
2. Early pregnancy: ensure the necessary carbohydrates
Those with severe pregnancy in early pregnancy can eat a small amount; those who have no obvious early pregnancy reactors maintain a balanced diet before pregnancy; those with obvious pregnancy or poor appetite do not have to emphasize the balanced diet too much; at least 130 grams of carbohydrates are intake;Just seek medical treatment in time.
3. In the middle and late pregnancy: appropriately increase the intake of milk, fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat
Compared with early pregnancy, 200 grams of milk is increased per day of pregnancy; a total of 50 grams of fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat are increased per day from the second trimester.
The total intake of fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat can reach the recommended amount. The preferably sequence is fish, poultry, eggs, lean meat.
Fish is the first choice for animal foods. It is best to consume 2 to 3 deep -sea fish 2 to 3 times a week.
4. Don’t forget exercise, maintain a suitable weight gain
Healthy pregnant women should conduct medium or low -intensity physical activity at no less than 30 minutes per day. It is best to be outdoor activities of 1 to 2 hours. Specific exercise can do it according to the physical condition and exercise habit of pregnant women.Essence
5. Smoke and alcohol, actively prepare breastfeeding
In addition to smoking and alcohol, pregnant women should also avoid passive smoking.Breastfeeding should be actively prepared after the second trimester.
Text/Guangzhou Daily All -Media Reporter Wang Jing Correspondent Lin Huifang