Successful, complete, and balanced pregnancy nutrition is the key to ensuring the healthy growth of the baby.Nutrition during pregnancy has the following characteristics.
The fetus is preferred to supply the fetus priority.For example, 20 % to 80 % of pregnant women will occur with iron deficiency anemia, and fetal anemia is generally not anemia when mild anemia; anemia in moderate anemia, but the degree of anemia is generally lower than that of the mother. This is the preferred phenomenon of the fetus.
The eugenics of food are within the time window of 24 weeks of pregnancy and the completion of the one -time development of brain cells. Supplementing rich DHA, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals can greatly promote the development of fetal brain cells.In the critical period of fetal eye development, the long -chain unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, taurine and vitamins, and minerals will make future babies have a pair of dark eyes.This is the eugenic effect of food.
Nutritional principles during pregnancy
According to the "Women’s Dietary Guidelines" released by the Chinese Nutrition Society in 2016, the following principles should be grasped during pregnancy.
◎ The diet structure is reasonable, the food is diversified, and the nutrition is balanced.In particular, the core nutritional folic acid, protein, DHA, zinc, iodine, iron, vitamin B, etc. should be fully intake during pregnancy.
◎ Reasonable energy intake.The daily energy supply in the second trimester increases by 300 kcal, and the daily increase of 450 kcal per day.
◎ Supplement folic acid, often eat iron -rich foods, and choose iodized salt.Daily oral folic acid supplements 600 micrograms.
◎ Increase the intake of milk, fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat in the middle and late pregnancy.If you consume 500 grams of milk per day, add 50 grams of fish, poultry, eggs, and lean meat daily in the second trimester, and an increase of about 75 grams in the third trimester.It is best to eat deep -sea fish 2 to 3 times a week.
◎ Eat more fruits and vegetables and soybeans.
◎ Those with severe pregnancy can eat a small amount to ensure foods that contain necessary amounts of carbohydrates.The minimum intake of 130 grams of carbohydrate is per day.
◎ Moderate physical activity to maintain a suitable weight gain during pregnancy.Healthy pregnant women should conduct medium -strength physical activity at no less than 30 minutes per day.The heart rate after the activity should be 95 to 133 times per minute.Common exercise includes fast walking, swimming, playing, dancing, pregnant women’s yoga, various housework labor, etc.
◎ Banish and alcohol, nourish new life, and actively prepare breastfeeding.Also avoid passive smoking and bad air environment.
Early pregnancy focus
Early pregnancy is a period of development of major organs, especially the development period of neural tube and main internal organs.In the early pregnancy, the organs of the fetus specially needed vitamins, minerals and proteins, especially the core nutrients such as folic acid, protein, zinc, iron, iodine, etc., which is particularly important for the healthy development of the fetus.
The most important nutrients in the early pregnancy are folic acid, and folic acid can prevent fetal neuropathy.Early pregnancy is the critical period of fetal brain cell development.Supplementing folic acid can also prevent anemia and premature birth.
Successive zinc is also important for early development of fetal organs, which helps prevent abortion and premature birth.Iodine deficiency affects the growth and intellectual level of the fetus, increasing the incidence of miscarriage and fetal malformations, and dead tires, leading to Katin disease.After women are pregnant, the blood capacity expands, and the amount of iron will double.If you do not pay attention to the intake of iron, you can easily suffer from iron deficiency anemia, and may cause the fetus to suffer from iron deficiency anemia.
As a result, the principles of dietary nutrition in the early pregnancy should be: ① light, easy to digest, and taste good.② It is recommended to take folic acid, zinc, iodine, iron and protein and other nutrients.
Generally, the heat growth of pregnant women will only increase by 10%during pregnancy, and it is enough to increase only about about one steamed bun.However, pregnant women’s demand for some vitamins and trace elements will increase to about 50%of the non -pregnancy period, but these nutrients are often not obtained from food.
You can consider choosing low lactose pregnant women’s formula milk powder. It is rich in folic acid, saliva, linolenic acid, linoleic acid, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamin B and other nutrients. It contains a variety of vitamins and minerals.The nutrients needed for the early pregnancy reactions are required to ensure the nutritional needs developed in the first three months of the fetus.
Pregnant women in the early pregnancy need to be roughly included in 4 main foods and proteins of more than 55 grams per day. High -quality protein, such as milk, eggs, poultry and fish.Pay attention to vitamin C, eat more vegetables and fruits.Foods such as biscuits, bread and soda biscuits can reduce the discomfort of pregnancy; ginger also has the treatment value; replenish water to avoid dehydration; taking vitamin B can relieve symptoms; keep the indoor air fresh, open windows and breathable, and go to a place with less odors.; Properly reduce the amount of exercise and workload, and ensure that full rest and other methods can generally relieve symptoms.Patients with pregnancy drama should be hospitalized.
Constitutional focus of nutrition in the middle and late pregnancy
The 4th to 10 months of pregnancy is the middle and late pregnancy of pregnancy. It is a period of rapid development and rapid weight gain. It has more nutritional needs, especially energy, protein, calcium and iron.By the fourth month of pregnancy, all the organs of the fetus have been formed, and they will continue to increase weight in the future, so the demand for energy and protein will be greatly increased.
During this period, to ensure the normal development of the fetus’s bones, the demand for calcium will increase by 40%, and about 1200 mg of calcium is required to ensure the needs of the mother and the fetus.Therefore, pregnant women must take sufficient calcium and supplement vitamin D to help the absorption of calcium in order to ensure that the baby born has a strong body.
In the late pregnancy, iron and folic acid, as well as the supplementation of various vitamins and minerals, are still important.In addition to preventing fetal anemia, adequate iron can further prevent premature birth and abortion, so that the weight at the time of birth can reach the due criteria.
Eat less and do not eat food during pregnancy
Foods should be eaten less during pregnancy 1. Fried food and processing food.Such as biscuits, cookies, cakes, fried chicken, fried fries, potato chips.
2. Foods and drinks with high sugar content.Such as Cola, sweet tea, desserts, soda, juice, sugar water.
3. Stimulating food.Mainly refers to onions, ginger, garlic, pepper, mustard, curry powder, etc.
4. Salt.If there are too many salt and alkali content in food, blood pressure can cause increased blood pressure, edema and even pregnancy hypertension syndrome.Especially in the middle and late pregnancy, food should be as light as possible.
Foods that should not be eaten during pregnancy
1. Raw eggs or no cooked eggs.2. Raw bean sprouts, raw bean seedlings.
3. Large mercury -containing fish, such as swordfish, catfish, horse head fish, shark.
4. Foods containing high lead.Such as popcorn.5. Alcohol drink.
6. Avoid hawthorn for early pregnancy.7. Avoid replenishment.
Common nutrition misunderstandings during pregnancy
"Children’s intelligence is natural, and nutrition is useless." Human IQ can be improved by supplementing fetal nutrients.The sufficient nutrients in the fetus can ensure the proliferation of the number of fetal brain cells, increase brain cell synapses, enhance the connection between the fetal brain nerve cells, the information transmission is more rapid, the brain function is enhanced, the memory is enhanced, and the birth of the baby after birth will be smarter.Essence
"If you are pregnant, you need to eat two people." There is no need to increase energy in the early pregnancy. It can increase 300 kcal per day in the second trimester.Too much energy intake can easily lead to obesity, difficulty, and diabetes.
"Eat more red dates and brown sugar." Anemia with iron supplements is better, and you can also eat more animal liver, animal blood, red meat, etc. to supplement the iron; red dates, brown sugarIron is non -heme iron (three -valent iron), with low absorption and utilization, high sugar, and poor effect.
"Fish, shrimp and beef are hair products, pregnant women cannot eat." You can eat fish and shrimp 2 to 3 times a week during pregnancy to supplement high -quality protein and DHA. Beef can prevent anemia.Try to avoid eating sashimi, and eat cooked fish and shrimp.
"Can’t drink coffee during pregnancy." WHO suggested that pregnant women take caffeine per day from 200 mg.It is safe to drink a cup of coffee every day, but drinking too much is risk of premature or abortion.
"Eating almonds can cause abortion." Almonds are divided into sweet almonds and bitter almonds, or south almonds and north almonds.Sweet almonds have rich nutritional value and can be eaten directly.Sweet almonds are not only rich in unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, high -quality protein, dietary fiber, but also contain calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and other minerals, which are easily absorbed by the human body.Bitter almonds are generally used for medicine. Bitter almonds contain bitter almondin, which can be hydrolyzed by gastric acid, which produces highly toxic substances. It is generally used for medicinal medicine.
(Author Wu Wei’s group president, chief physician, doctor of medicine, senior examination judge of national public nutritionist)