Author: Bai Xingyu (Editorial editor of the five -color soil in the Beijing Evening News)
The wine device is said to have developed from the earliest people who are not satisfied with "dirty drinking".During the pre -Qin period, the ancestors developed a variety of uses of different uses, which not only had practical value, but also carried heavy artistic value and historical value, condensing the pursuit of a ancestor of the Chinese nation.Today, we will talk about the more representative Jue, Zun He.
Jue God Wu Zhenfu Fragrant Fragrance
So far, people discovered that the earliest bronze wares were a bronze that was unearthed at the Erlitou site.
In the sequence of the wine device, Jue’s status is slight, ritual and earth, ghosts, and guests, crowns, fainting, funeral, sacrifice, North Korea, hiring, and hometown, everything is omnipotent.As the easiest wine device, the shape of Jue is more delicate compared to today’s utensils: the waist and flat belly, three -legged slender, front and rear tails, such as birds and birds flying, exquisite and powerful.
Jue’s name is gained for the bird."Said the text" said: "Jue, ritual instrument. The shape of Xiangjue, there is a wine in the middle, and it is persistent. So drink." Jue’s body shape, the lower part is holding a wine glass in one hand, the upper half of the half, the upper half of the half, the upper halfSome like a flying bird, as a whole, it looks like the shape of Jue.
"The person who looks like a lord, take its ring." The shape of the Jue is like a bird, mainly because of the slender legs and feet, but it looks like God.The bronze wares during the Shang and Zhou dynasties most liked to make animal shapes.
So, why is the initial batch of wine tools based on birds?Moreover, this bird has three feet?Some people say that the reason why Jue causes three feet is to consider the stability of the triangle.If you refer to Chinese mythology, you may find that the prototype of the Jue may not be ordinary birds.According to legend, there are three -legged black in the sun, which is the representative of the gods.Bai Juyi Shiyun, "White Rabbit Chiwu took advantage of it", the white rabbit was the moon, and the red was the day.It is also an animal metaphorical time. The white horse pass is a small moment, while the Wufei Rabbit walks continuously.
The shape of the Jue was covered with angular. Imagine the heavy bronze bird filled a glass of wine, and then sent it to the mouth -the whole process, accidentally stabbed the palm of your hand and touched his nose.Therefore, some people think that the difference between Jue and ， may be a pure ritual, which cannot really be used for drinking.In fact, strictly speaking, the bronze we see is a copy of daily appliances.But this does not affect us to watch them from the perspective of actual life -whether it is sacrifice, commemoration or burial, they are the essence of daily life after being quenched.Perhaps those Tongjue never really touched their lips, but their posture had performed tens of millions of toasts and drinks.
The things in the jue of Jue are wine, which is the sacrifice wine, and the raw materials are tulip and black crickets. Probably use black crickets to make wine and then soaked with tulip.liquor.The wine is heavy, "fragrant clothes, so on."Divine drinking, just drink aroma, just as Bronze Jue now only needs to stand quietly in the museum’s showcase, providing the viewers with a little imagination material and space.
Above the temple, fragrant.If the bronze is a temporarily stopped Shenwu, then its wings are the aroma of wine in the cup.Over time, Jue also lost the container, connecting it with the Ming Lu, and became a pure identity symbol.
Zun Eryang is not drunk
Fish and sheep are fresh, sheep are beautiful.Reading the book, most of the poems about sheep are embellishment of the grassland background.And in "Xiaoya Wanless Sheep", the fate of the sheep directly depicts the fate of the sheep: "Er Sheep is thinking, its horns.Either. Er Mu came to think, He Yan, He Yan, or negative it. Thirty -dimensional objects, Erba have a cluster. "Sheep gathered in a cluster, and scattered everywhere, and eventually, with the cow, it was enough to" sacrifice the sacrifice"The weight.
In ancient times, the livestock slaughtered for sacrifice was "sacrifice", and sheep was a noble animal that sacrificed the sequence after the cattle.However, in addition to the grazing, the cattle are also out of the farmland and the forests. They have a more vivid appearance in people’s minds, leaving a masterpiece of handed down from the five cows.Either fat or lean sheep, in the world of poetry and even art, gradually becomes a white dot with vague appearances on the grassland.
Fortunately, Bronze set the expression of the sheep for us.The four sheep’s respect, with the trend of thunder and roundness and elegance, tells us: Sheep, this can also be a kind of beast with a lofty beauty.Its horns and hoofs, faces and chests are worthy of nature.It can show the fierce edges and corners, and it can also outline the smoothest arc.
Zun is the vessel of the wine, and its location may be equivalent to today’s bartender.The respect of "sacrifice" as the shape is called "sacrifice", including Niu Zun, Yang Zun and so on.The shape of the sheep’s head on the four sheep is likely to symbolize the sheep as a sacrifice.This shape is full of perfect and seamless trace Fang Zun, and found a amazing balance between Fang Zheng and Zhang Yang -the four sheep surrounded the body, which seemed to be leaping up, and was invisible and invisiblePower appease.Fang Zun is not only a fence that cannot be lost, but also an infinite extension.
Imagine that if the four sheep are full of wine and be sent to the altar with cattle and sheep, what kind of scene is it?
Businessmen are good, and alcoholic is a major evidence of the crime of King Shang Yang.Zhou Ren cautiously cleared the boundaries with the shortcomings of alcohol and merchants.Since then, wine and wine vessels have been sealed almost on the altar.
After the death of the Shang Dynasty for many years, Zhou Gongdan, the representative of Dexing, was the younger brother of Kang, who was the old man, and made his resident’s hometown of the merchant and managed the survivors of the merchant.This is not an easy difference.Zhou Gong was deeply thoughtful and wrote his own expectations with the experience of governing the country in "Kang Ye", "Jiu Ji" and "Zi Cai".And "Wine" is a solemn banned banquet, warning: "Drink the only sacrifice, and virtue will not be drunk." Only when sacrifices can you drink, you have to overcome the desire of drunk with virtue.As long as you work well, the elderly and the monarch, you will be full, and even participate in the sacred sacrifice.Remember, remember.
觚 Between the name and the reality
This wine glass called "酒" should not be bronze.Merchants and the early Zhou Dynasty were popular with bronze drinking vessels, and in the spring and autumn ceremony recorded in the ritual, the mainstream drinking device has become lacquer woodenware.So this wine device is not a heavy bronze cup, but a light lacquer wood cup.It does not match the ideal of Confucius’s ideals, or it is too rough, almost disgusting.
In short, Confucius said such a sentence:
觚 觚 觚 觚 觚觚 觚觚
The main meaning of this sentence is that it is not like a cricket, too bad.Confucius’ words are so simple, but later generations need to add their own understanding to the reading reading.Zhu Xi said that when he was in the Western Zhou Dynasty, it was a wine glass, but the wine glass in Confucius was round and there was no edges. Therefore, Confucius used this round wine glass to criticize the losing ceremony.I want to use the power of modern punctuation symbols to imagine the expression and tone of Confucius at that time between words and words.
！ 觚, 觚 觚!觚 觚!——This is venting emotions.I don’t look like 太, too bad!It’s too bad!
? 觚 觚, 觚 觚?觚 觚?——This is questioning, with blame.I don’t look like 这, is this like this?Is this like a word?
? 觚 觚, 觚 觚?觚 觚!——This is questioning and venting emotions, mixed with skepticism that breeds too much because of being too disappointed.Is this still like?ah?It’s too bad!It’s too bad!
Perhaps the last one is the best in terms of language rhythm.Self -questioning and self -answering, gradually advancing and stretching emotions, vague words.
The expression and gesture of Confucius’ drinking disappeared in the years, and only the fragmented words were left to turn into words, thin but conducive to storage words.There is also the thick wine glass that disappears together.In the end, we didn’t know what the wine glass in Confucius had grown like.As a physical wine glass, it disappeared, and the "觚" as the name was left.Zhu Xi’s explanation is perfect, just as the Song people’s detailed evidence and naming of bronze wares.Jinshi scholars collected and sorted out many bronze wares, and named them according to the names recorded in the book. The most important of which were "Five Jue": Jue, 觚, 觯, horns, and 斝, and the capacity was one to five liters, respectively.It is a little bigger than Jue, and it should be a wine glass.
However, the perfect theory will always be challenged by reality.Regardless of the Song people, there are all kinds of disputes. When modern people dig out more Shang and Zhou bronze, the problem also surfaces.People have found a lot of "上", extending the upper opening, and the lower cup is thin and long.However, it is round, with edges, some Shang Dynasty, and Western Zhou Dynasty.If according to Zhu Xi’s explanation, it can only be said that Confucius, who was in the Spring and Autumn Period, did not see the real thing because he had seen his imagination of the Western Zhou Dynasty.
But Zhu Xi’s explanation must be right?Furthermore, Confucius must be holding a wine glass at that time?In the Northern Song Dynasty, a person named Yao Kuan read such a one in "Taiping Royal Lan": "Confucius said, cutting the cricket and thinking, and it is from time to time."Alas.Confucius was not said when he was drinking, but said when cutting wood.The Ming people Yang Shen further carried forward this statement, saying that it may be a wooden wine glass!
However, I believe that Confucius did hold a wine glass called "觚", used it to drink, and sent out a full of emotional sigh.Because of his sigh, "觚" turned "觚" into a clear concept in people’s mind.
Indeed, it is the most commonly used wine device for people from Shang and Zhou Spring and Autumn Period.It’s just that it was bronze earlier, and then it became a lighter lacquer wood.Regardless of whether there is a edge or a edge, the 棱 is originally a commoner, but it just happens to be a footnote of the Analects.Later generations thought hard to meditate, to give Confucius a explanation, give wine glass a explanation, and explain to "觚" to make the name match the truth.
"Guangming Daily" (16th version of July 14, 2023)
Source: Guangming.com- "Guangming Daily"