With the improvement of people’s health awareness, many people have begun to pay attention to supplementing various nutrients.On the Internet, many people said that "the sun has not enough time" and "the bone density is not high enough", so it is necessary to add additional vitamin D; but some people think that excessive vitamin D supplements "harm to the liver."
What is the use of vitamin D for the human body?Who needs to supplement vitamin D, and how to replenish vitamin D scientifically and reasonably?With these issues, a reporter from the Science and Technology Daily interviewed relevant experts.
Lack of vitamin D or causing multiple diseases
Vitamin D is a kind of lipid -soluble vitamin, which has an important role in the human body."Vitamin D helps bone health. Vitamin D endocrine system can regulate blood calcium balance and maintain the normal blood calcium concentration of the body."Rong Shuang, director of the Nutrition Society, told reporters.
Vitamin D also participates in the adjustment of various functions of the body.Rong Shuang said that vitamin D has the function of hormone, which adjusts the body’s growth and development, cell differentiation, immune, and inflammatory response through vitamin D receptor."In recent years, a large number of studies have found that the level of low vitamin D in the body is closely related to hypertension, tumor, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and autoimmune diseases. It is also related to some infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and influenza." Rong Shuang saidEssence
Vitamin D deficiency is quite common globally.Studies have shown that the serious deficiency rate of global vitamin D is 15.7%and the lack rate is 44.7%."Chinese Resident Dietary Guidelines Scientific Research Report (2021)" also pointed out that from 2016 to 2017, the deficiency rate of serum vitamin D in China 6-17 years old is 18.6%;It is 21.4%.
For most people, vitamin D deficiency can affect bone calcification and cause abnormal minerals of bones and teeth.In addition, the lack of vitamin D will also cause varying degrees of harm to people of different ages.
The lack of vitamin D in infants and young children is not only easy to cause ravioli, but also may be softened and bent and deformed due to its bones that cannot be calcified normally, such as forming "X" or "O" -shaped legs, skeletal bumps, delayed pelvic delays, narrow pelvis becomes narrowing.With spine bending, etc.At the same time, the lack of vitamin D often leads to poor abdominal muscles in infants and young children, causing its abdomen to swell; in terms of teeth, it is easy to delay teething, sparse and depression of dental caries and Gonia tooth.
When pregnant women lack vitamin D, they are susceptible to bone softness. They are mainly manifested in bone softening and easy to deform. The pelvic deformation can cause it.
Due to the decrease in liver and kidney function, poor gastrointestinal absorption, and decreased outdoor activities, the level of vitamin D in the elderly is often lower than young people.When the elderly lacks vitamin D, they are susceptible to osteoporosis, which increases the risk of fracture.
Excessive supplement vitamin D is not good for health
So, how to replenish vitamin D scientifically?"Frequent sun exposure is both cheap and can effectively supplement the best way to supplement human vitamin D. It can be sun -sun at 9-10 am or 4-5 pm every day for 10-20 minutes." Rong Shuang said, " As long as adults often come into contact with the sun, they can greatly reduce the incidence of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D enhanced milk in many parts of my country can also improve vitamin D deficiency to a certain extent. "In terms of dietary supplement, vitamin D is the main main Dietary D. It exists in animal foods such as liver and egg yolk and cod liver oil preparations.Rong Shuang reminded that human milk and ordinary milk are the source of poor vitamin D. Vegetables, cereals and products and fruits also contain only a small amount of vitamin D, or almost no vitamin D.
It should be noted that vitamin D is not "as better as better."Rong Shuang said that although the poisonous dose of vitamin D is not yet determined, excessive intake of vitamin D may produce many side effects including lack of appetite, weight loss, nausea and vomitingSoft tissue such as bronchial metastasis and kidney stones, severe vitamin D poisoning can cause death.
"Vitamin D can not only be derived from the diet and the skin, so it is difficult to estimate the supply of dietary vitamin D." Rong Shuang said, "Reference intake based on the dietary nutrients formulated in China, the conditions of sufficient calcium and phosphorus supply in ChinaBelow, the recommended intake of vitamin D of children, adolescents, adults, pregnant women, and breasts, and the appropriate intake of the appropriate intake of babies 0-1 years are 10 micrograms per day.The maximum tolerable intake of people above (including pregnant women and breasts) is 50 micrograms per day, and the maximum intake of those who are aged 0-4, 4-17, and 7-11 are 20 per day.Micro, 30 micrograms and 45 micrograms. "Rong Shuang said.(Pei Yanwei)
Source: Science and Technology Daily