Iodine is one of the essential elements of the human body, participating in the synthesis of thyroxine.The monitoring of iodine nutrition in the population has been attracted much attention.In this special period of pregnancy, proper iodine nutrition is particularly important for mothers and children’s health. Improper iodine intake may cause maternal thyroid dysfunction, and even cause bad pregnancy endings.
So what are the common problems about iodine during pregnancy?
What are the recommended dosage for iodine intake during pregnancy and lactation?
Increased thyroid hormone synthesis, increased renal iodine excretion, and increased fetal iodine demand to increase the amount of iodine in pregnancy increase significantly compared to non -pregnancy women.WHO recommends that the iodine intake of women during pregnancy and lactation is 250 μg/d.The Chinese Nutrition Society recommends that the iodine intake during pregnancy is 230 μg/d, and the breastfeeding period is 240 μg/d.
Women with sufficient iodine intake during pregnancy and pregnancy can preserve sufficient iodine reserves in thyroid gland, which can meet the needs of thyroid hormones during pregnancy.
The impact of light and moderate iodine deficiency on mothers and fetuses?
Light medium iodine deficiency increases the risk of thyroid mosquito and thyroid disease, which may reduce the synthesis of thyroid poinetes and adversely affect the cognitive function of future generations.Light and moderate iodine deficiency is related to children’s attention and dynamic disease.The impact of mild and moderate iodine deficiency on women with pregnancy depends on the nutritional status of basic iodine.
What is the impact of severe iodine deficiency on mothers and fetuses?
Severe iodine deficiency in pregnant women can lead to insufficient synthesis of thyroid hormone synthesis (hypertrophilinemia and hypothyroidism) in mothers and fetuses.The level of thyroid hormone is reduced to stimulate the production and increase of pituitary TSH, stimulate the growth of thyroid, and causes mothers and fetal goiter.Severe iodine deficiency in pregnant women can cause increased mortality in infant death, death and birth after birth.
Normal levels of thyroid hormones are essential for the formation of neurons in the fetal brain tissue and the formation of myelin sheath.The thyroid hormone is necessary during the entire pregnancy, especially the descendants of severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy in the first half of pregnancy may be manifested as dysfunction (Katin disease).
How to supplement iodine during pregnancy and lactation?
WHO recommends that iodine intake during pregnancy and lactating women is 250 μg/d.It is best to add potassium iodide.WHO recommends that in countries with general salt and iodine, if the coverage of iodized salt exceeds 90 %, ordinary residents iodine nutrition is in a suitable state, and women during pregnancy ensure that iodine salt intake does not require additional iodine preparations.After the moderate to severe iodine deficiency areas that have not been implemented with iodine and iodine, after breastfeeding women give 400mg of iodine oil at one time, their milk can provide babies with a sufficient amount of iodine for 6 months for growth and development.
What is the safety limit for iodine intake during pregnancy and lactation?
The upper limit of iodine intake of iodine refers to the maximum daily iodine intake of almost all individuals in the crowd and does not cause side effects.The definition of WHO’s excessive iodine for pregnancy is UIC (urinary iodine) ≥500 μg/L.The maximum intake of pregnant women and lactating iodine -to -mammals in my country is 600 μg/d.
The normal body can produce iodine blocking effects on acute iodine intake, that is, thyroid hormone synthesis and reduction of release, and the normal body generates iodine removal response when the normal body is continuously existed.Synthesis and secretion recovery of thyroid hormones.
However, the iodine loss function of patients with thyroid diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis is damaged, and hypothyroidism is prone to occur in high iodine environments. The escape function of fetal acute iodine blocking effects can be developed and sound after 36 weeks of pregnancy, soExcessive iodine can easily cause fetal hypothyroidism.
Excessive iodine is mainly from iodine -containing drugs, such as iodone, iodine -containing film.